Vital Rates (Life History Parameters) of and Elasticities
for the Leopoard Shark, Triakis semifasciata
Parameter  Female  Male  References 

Largest specimens (Total length and mass) 
1.981 m; 1.515 mTL  Miller and Lea (1972); Ackerman 1971  
Size range of specimens  0.2261.450 m TL (n = 162)  Kusher et al. 1992  
Size at maturity  0.951.1 m TL  1.01.1 m TL  Kusher et al. 1992 
Smallest mature  0.94 m TL (10 yr)  1.01 m TL (10 yr); 1.15 m TL (7 yr)  Kusher et al. 1992 
Largest immature  1.08 m TL (11 yr)  1.10 m TL (11 yr)  Kusher et al. 1992 
Sizes at which 10, 50, and 90% are mature 

Fig. 12 data in Koster et al. 1992 could be used to determine this.  
Estimated age at maturity  1013 yr  710 yr  Kusher et al. 1992 
Gestation time  12 months  Kusher et al. 1992  
Reproductive cycle  1 year  Kusher et al. 1992  
Litter size (# of pups in litter)  736  Cortés (2002)  
Birth size estimate  25 cm TL  Kusher et al. 1992  
Smallest freeswimming  25 cm TL  Kusher et al. 1992  
First year growth  9.2 cm TL based on VBGF  10.7 cm TL based on VBGF  Kusher et al. 1992 
Von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) 
TLoo = 1.602 m, TLo = 0.290 m (to =  2.74 yr), k = 0.073 yr1 (5ln(2)/k = 47.5yr); 
TLoo = 1,499m, TLo = 0.248m (to =  2.03 yr), k = 0.089 yr1 (5ln(2)/k = 38.9yr); 

Elasticity estimates based on alpha = 12 yr, Abar = 16.41 yr, Abar/alpha = 1.37 (AES Manaus) 
E(m) = 1/Abar = 1/16.41 = 0.0609; 
Normalized elasticities: E(fertility) = E(m) = 5.7%; E(juvenile survival) = E(JS) = 68.9%; E(adult sruvival) = E(AS) = 25.3% , E(AS)/E(JS) = 0.37 

Parameter  Female  Male  References 