Elasmobranch Stinger References
Created February 1998 based on ELASMO-L postings; revised August 1999 based
on additional ELASMO-L postings. Thanks to John Morrissay, John Bruner, and
Joe Choromanski for additional references.
Please send comments, corrections, and updates to firstname.lastname@example.org
John Bruner on venoms in sharks and
chimaerids (added 9 April 2003).
Auerbach, P. S. 1991. Marine envenomations. New England Journal
of Medicine 325: 486-493
- Barss P. 1984. Wound necrosis caused by the venom of stingrays.
Pathological findings and surgical management. Medical Journal of Australia
Abstract: Two cases of stingray injury which caused extensive tissue necrosis
are reported. In one patient, the wound was allegedly inflicted by Dasyatis
kuhlii, the blue-spotted stingray; in the other, by D. sephen, the cowtail
ray. After excision of necrotic tissue, the wounds healed rapidly and without
complications. Wound exploration and debridement of dead tissue are indicated
in at least some stingray injuries, particularly when first-aid measures,
such as early immersion in hot water or irrigation of the wound have not
been carried out.
- Bottard, L. A. 1889. Les Poissons Venimeux. Octave Doin, Paris.
- Burk, M. P. and P. A. Richter 1990. Stingray injuries of the foot:
Two case reports. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association 80:
Abstract: Stingrays, found predominantly in war coastal waters, are responsible of
at least 1500 human injuries in this country each year. These occur most
often in the lower extremity, The authors discuss the symptoms and treatment
of stingray injuries and present two case reports.
Burnett, J.W., Calton, G.J., and Morgan, R.J. 1986. Venomous stingray
injuries. Cutis. 38:112.
Cadzow, W. H. 1960. Puncture wound of the liver by stingray spines.
Med. J. Australia 1(24):936-937.
- Cross, T. B. 1976. The unusual stingray injury - the skindiver at
risk. Med. J. Australia 2:947-948.
- Evans, H. M. 1920. The poison of the spiny dog-fish. A case of acute
oedema the result of a prick by a dog-fish, and a preliminary note on the
poison gland of the spiny dog-fish. The British Medical Journal. Vol. 1(1):287-288.
4 figures, 1 sketch. *Squalus acanthias
- Evans, H. M. 1921. The poison organs and venoms of venomous fish.
British Med. J. 2:690-692.
- Evans, H. Muir. 1923. 1. The Defensive spines of fishes, living and
fossil, and the glandular structure in connection therewith, with observations
on the nature of fish venoms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal society
of London. Series B. Vol. 212(391):1-33, 3 plates, 11 figures. *Squalus acanthias*,
*Trachinus aranaeus*, *Trygon pastinaca* *Cestracion philippi*, *Chimaera
monstrosa*, *Trachinus draco*; FOSSILS: *Hybodus*, *Asteracanthus ornatissimus*,
*Pleuracanthus cylindricus*, P. kounoviensis*, *P. woodwardii*, *P. laevissimus*,
- Evans, H. M. 1943. Sting-fish and Seafarer. Faber and Faber, Ltd.
London. 180 p.
- Evans, H. M. 1944. Sharks: vicious and venomous. The Lancet 247:6331.
- Evans, H. M. 1945. Toxic properties of stingray's sting. British
Med. J. 2:165.
- Falcone, R. E. and A. P. Miller 1991. Two-fathom hickey. New England
Journal of Medicine 325: 521-522.
- Fenner, P.J., Williamson, J.A., and Skinner, R.A. 1989. Fatal and
non-fatal stingray envenomation. Medical Journal of Australia. 151:
621-5. Institution: Ambrose Medical Group, North Mackay, Qld.
Abstract: A fatality occurred in a previously healthy 12-year-old boy after
a penetrating chest injury from a stingray barb. The injury occurred under
freak circumstances. Death was a result of cardiac tamponade which was secondary
to venom-induced, localized myocardial necrosis and spontaneous perforation,
six days after the direct penetration of the right ventricle by the barb.
Three other cases of less serious stingray envenomation are described which
illustrate the significant localized morbidity that may occur without immediate
wound exploration and toilet after adequate anaesthesia. We also report
a study of a series of 100 minor stingray envenomations which, when treated,
resulted in no morbidity. It is possible that local infiltration with 1%
plain lignocaine may have a direct counteraction against stingray venom
that remains in the wound area. Stingray venom has insidious, but powerful,
localized tissue necrosing properties in humans.
- Halstead, B.W. 1988. Chapter XVIII-Vertebrates, Class Chondrichthyses
In Poisonous and venomous marin animals of the world. Second
revised edition. The Darwin Press, Inc. Princeton NJ, USA. pp. 701-774.
- Halstead, B. W. and N. C. Bunker. 1953. Stingray attacks and their
treatment. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2:115-128.
- Halstead, B. W. and F. R. Modglin. 1950. A preliminary report on
the venom apparatus of the bat?ray, Holorhinus californicus. Copeia 1950(3):165-175.
- Halstead, B. W., R. R. Ocampo and F. R. Modglin. 1955. A study on
the comparative anatomy of the venom apparatus of certain North American stingrays.
J. Morphol. 97(1):1-14.
- Hiemenz, J W, B. Kennedy, K.J. Kwon-Chung 1990. Invasive fusariosis
associated with an injury by a stingray barb. Journal of Medical and Veterinary
Mycology 28: 209-214.
Abstract:A previously healthy adult male suffered a wound to the dorsal ulna aspect
of his right hand by a stingray barb while fishing off the east coast of
Florida. Two week after the imbedded barb had been surgically removed, an
erythematous lesion developed around the wound. Histopathalogic and microbiological
studies revealed infection caused by *Fusarium solani*. The patient was
successfully treated with debridement and skin grafting in conjunction with
- Ikeda, T. 1989. Supraventricular bigeminy following a stingray envenomation:
a case report. Hawaii Medical Journal. 48:162, 164.
Abstract: We present a case of supraventricular bigeminy following a stingray
injury. The arrhythmia was noted on an electrocardiogram 40 minutes after
the sting. Although arrhythmias are reported as one of the consequences
of stingray injury, a review of the literature reveals no comparable case.
- Kizer, K.W. 1990. When a stingray strikes: Treating common marine
envenomations. Physician and Sportsmedicine 18: 93-109.
Abstract: Untoward encounters with hazardous marine animas are increasing as more
people take to the water for recreation, work, or science. This article
reviews the most common envenomations and outlines their treatment. These
injuries can be mild to severe; some are life threatening. Usually, marine
animal stings can be treated effectively with topical agents, while spine-puncture
envenomations respond to hot-water immersion (to inactivate venom proteins)
followed by analgesics and wound care as needed. In rare instances, life-support
measures may be needed. Prevention depends on learning these animals' habits.
- Lalwani, K. 1995. Animal toxins: Scorpaenidae and stingrays [letter;
comment]. Comment on: Br J Anaesth 1995 Mar;74(3):319-27. British Journal
of Anaesthesia. 75: 247.
- Mageroy, N., and Baerheim, A. 1991. [Ratfish (Chimaera monstrosa)
sting]. [Norwegian, Original Title]. Stikk av havmus (Chimaera monstrosa).
Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening. 111: 2102-3, Institution: Institutt
for samfunnsmedisinske fag, Universitetet i Bergen.
Abstract: A fisherman was accidentally stung on his right calf by the spine
of a ratfish (Chimaera monstrosa). Adjacent to the wound was a swelling,
with a bluish skin colour the first day. The fisherman experienced an immediate
burning pain and during the following days developed numbness of the calf
and the back of the thigh. He needed crutches for three weeks, and the symptoms
lasted for nine weeks. The treatment consists of rinsing the wound and removing
foreign material, and submerging the afflicted limb as soon as possible
in water as hot as the patient can tolerate for at least 30 minutes.
- Meade, J. L. 1999. Sting Ray Envenomations.
http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic556.htm. Summary of treatment for stingray wounds.
- Moyles, B. G and Wilson R. C. 1989. Stingray Spine Foreign Body in
the Foot. Journal of Foot Surgery 28: 30-32.
Abstrat: An unusual case report of a retained stingray spine foreign body in the
foot is presented. The case is interesting in that the foreign body, although
visualized on radiographs, was difficult to locate intraoperatively. A review
of techniques of localizing foreign bodies in the foot is presented as well
as a discussion on stingrays in general. Because of the possibility of spine
breakage in a stingray puncture wound, radiographs should be considered
in injuries of the this type.
- Mullanney, P. J. 1970. Treatment of stingray wounds. Clin. Toxicol.
3(4):613-615. Rodrigues, R. J. 1972. Pharmacology of South American freshwater
stingray venom (Potamotrygon motoro). Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1972:677-686.
- Norman, J. R. & F. C. Fraser 1938. Giant fishes, whales and dolphins.
W. W. Norton & Company Inc. New York. Pp. 361.
From page 74: The ancient writers had fearful tales to tell concerning
the wounds caused by the Trygon, and we read that "Circe armed her
son with spear which she pointed with a Trygon's spine as the most
formidable weapon she could place in his hands, and with which he subsequently
unintentionally slew his father, Ulysses". "Nothing is more terrible," writes
Pliny, "than the sting that arms the tail of *Trygon*, called *Pantinaca*
by the Latins, which is five inches long. When driven into the root of a
tree in caused it to wither. It can pierce armour like an arrow, it is as
strong as iron, yet possesses venomous properties."
- Phisalix, Marie. 1922. Animaux Venimeux et Venins. (that is all
I have for this reference).
- Pawlowsky, E. n. 1927. Giftiere und ihre Giftigkeit. Gustav Fischer,
Jena:245-247, figs. (114,115), 406-418 (figs. 166-170), and 478-481.
- Rathjen, W.F. & B.W. Halstead 1969. Report on two fatalities due
to stingrays. Toxicon 6: 301-302.
- Romano, S. 1940. Animali velenosi della fauna Italiana. Natura 31:
137-167, 7 figs. (p.156 Dasyatis violacea.
- Russell, F. E. 1953. Stingray injuries: a review and discussion of
their treatment. American Journal of Medical Science 226: 611-622.
- Russell, F. E. 1961. Injuries by venomous animals in the United States.
J. Am. Med. Ass. 177:903-907.
- Russell, F. E., W. C. Barrit and M. D. Fairchild. 1957. Electrocardiographic
patterns evoked by venom of the stingray. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 96:634-635.
- Russell, F. E., M. D. Fairchild and J. Michaelson. 1958. Some properties
of the venom of the stingray. Med. Arts Sci. 12(2):78-86.
- Russell, F. E. and R. D. Lewis. 1956. Evaluation of the current status
of therapy for stingray injuries. In: Venoms. E. E. Buckley and N. Porges,
eds. Publication #44 of A.A.A.S., Washington, D. C. pp. 43-53.
- Russell, F. E., T. C. Panos, L. W. Kang, A. M. Warner and T. C. Colket.
1958. Studies on the mechanism of death from stingray venom ? a report
of two fatal cases. Am. J. Med. Sci. 235: 566-584.
- Russell, F. E. and A. Van Harreveld. 1954. Cardiovascular effects
of the venom of the round stingray Urobatis halleri. Arch. int. Physiol. 62:322-333.
- Russell, F. E. and A. Van Harreveld. 1956. Cardiovascular effects
of the venom of the round stingray Urobatis halleri. In: Venoms. E. E. Buckley
and N. Porges, eds. Publication 44 of A.A.A.S., Washington, D. C. pp. 33-41.
- Whitley, Gilbert Percy, and Halstead, B. W. 1955. An annotated bibliography
of the poisonous and venomous fishes of Australia. Records of the Australian
Museum Vol. 23:211-227.
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